As Belgium is divided into distinct federal regions, it also has distinct education systems. Each community has its own system. The Educational development of each one of those run their own system. They are similar to one another and their goals are pretty much the same. The national government doesn't have that much of power, it decides the age for mandatory school and financing from the communities. School in Belgium is regulated and mandatory for all children and teenagers until the student turns 18 or graduates from high school. Schools, for the larger part, are financed by one of the three communities.
In Belgium, instead of three schools like here in the U.S., we only have two schools. Children go to primary school between the ages of 6 and 12 and then go to secondary school between the ages of 12 and 18. To that, you can add three non-mandatory years of preschool. This free schooling is provided to every child from the age of 2 and a half.
When students graduate from secondary school, they have the choice to pursue an education or to go directly working. Pursue an education and go to college is highly recommended, since it has become harder and harder to find a job if you don't have a university graduate degree in the field you want to work in. For college, you also have two main choices. You can go to the university, which is 5 years long, or you can go Polytechnic/Vocational university, which is usually 3 years long. The university enrollment is very different than from here. Colleges apply the "first came first served" rule, and so, most of the students that apply to a college are accepted, no matter their high school grades or their backgrounds. The student lawn you pay is also considerably different. Without any scholarship, the cost would be around 800 euros. Students with low-family income can get a full or partial scholarship that will help them pay for college. Scholarships don't depend on the kid's grades at the beginning but can be taken away from him/her if he doesn't show enough interest in his/her classes or grades.
The schools in themselves are very different than from here. I'm mostly going to talk about high school in the French speaking part of Belgium because it's what matters the most to my classmates and teachers but one important thing is that the three systems are linked together. A French speaking school has to offer German and Dutch, a Dutch speaking French and German, and a German speaking has to teach French. Almost all of our secondary schools also offer English as a foreign language. High school in itself is so different! First of all, our days are longer. Most of the time, we have either 8 or 9 periods of 50 minutes. Our schedule is different everyday. We can't choose all of our classes. Most of them are mandatory during the 6 years of secondary school, like 5 hours of French per week, 4 of math, 3 of science, 2 of history, 2 of geography and 4 of a foreign language. This group of classes is called general knowledge. To all those classes, you can add more vocational classes like one or two other foreign classes, more math or more science, psychology, financial science or theater. High school has mandatory P.E. classes but doesn't offer sports after school like here. It doesn't offer clubs neither. You can practice sports outside of the school in many local clubs. In my opinion, it can be a good and bad thing. By not having sports or clubs at school, it doesn't provide that much of a school spirit but in the mean time, it allows you to meet more people outside the school.
Students in Belgium are tested all-year long and have a final exam every year since 1st grade to senior year. Once in secondary school, they also have mid-year exams. A new law passed a few years ago which obligates the secondary schools to test their students with a community wide test, the same test for all the students in the community, in 8th grade, sophomore and senior year. If you do not pass more than 2 or 3 classes (let me remember you that we have like 13 classes) at the end of the year, you don't get the chance to take it again in the next grade the next year, but you have to restart the same school year. I feel like we get tested more often in Belgium and have more homework.